A book in which antiphons, responsories, and other chants of the Mass and Divine Office are classified according to the eight musical modes. Independent tonaries first appear in the Carolingian period but are rare. The tonary is more often incorporated into liturgical books, such as the Antiphonal, the Gradual, and the Troper.

Michelle Brown

Michelle Brown, Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum in association with the British Library, c1994).