Stationers, scribes, or illuminators often gave written instructions as to the form, content, or color of what was to be painted. Instructions relating to binding and assembly also occur. Such instructions were often executed in hard point, lead point, or metal point in order to render them less intrusive.

Michelle Brown

Michelle Brown, Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum in association with the British Library, c1994).